When the former Emir, His Highness Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al-Thani, assumed power in 1995, the legal system in Qatar witnessed a massive advancement towards modernization. Such trend is still operative with the current Emir, His Highness Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Bin Khalifa Al-Thani.
The Qatari Constitution came into force and effect on June 2005.
The Constitution states that Qatar has a democratic political system, and shall preserve its independence, sovereignty, security, safety, stability and integrity of its territory, and that it shall defend itself against any aggression.
The Constitution stipulates that the ruling of the State is hereditary within the Al-Thani family
The Qatari Constitution provides basic civil and human rights. It stipulates that all citizens are equal in general rights and duties. Additionally, all people are equal before the law and there shall be no discrimination on the grounds of gender, ethnic origin, language or religion. It also provides for the individual’s right to privacy, and privacy of family affairs and correspondence.
In the judicial process, the accused person in a criminal legal proceeding is deemed innocent until proven guilty by court. All necessary legal assistance will be provided to the accused person, in order to exercise his right of defence. The Constitution provides that the judicial authority is vested in courts, and judges are independent in their judgements
The Constitution states that the Advisory Council shall exercise the legislative authority.
The Cabinet may also propose laws and deliver same to the Advisory Council for deliberations. However, such proposals are not binding on the Advisory Council.
The Constitution provides that every draft law adopted by the Advisory Council has to be referred finally to the Emir for endorsement.
THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM